—a figure of speech in which one object or idea takes the place of another with which it has a close association.

A classic example is using ‘the White House' to refer to the U.S. executive branch of government.

‘The pen is mightier than the sword' uses ‘pen' and ‘sword' to represent ‘written words' and ‘military power,' respectively. If we were in a physical fight, most of us would choose to defend ourselves with the sword.

When we say “That order came down from the suits in the administration department,” we know they weren't drafted by articles of clothing.”

The number crunchers in accounting aren't literally chewing on .

Uncle Sam isn't a live person who levies taxes and sends soldiers off to fight.

enriches language by allowing for and vivid expressions that evoke a broader context in just a few words.

is particularly effective in poetic and persuasive , where it helps to convey complex ideas directly and powerfully